Aussies Spinner, Nathan Lyon took six wickets to beat England by 251 runs in Edgbaston.
England had to chase down the 398-target for the victory. England lost four wickets for 12 runs on either side of lunch on the last day as they collapsed to 97-7.
They were eventually all out at 146-runs in their second inning. Lyon takes 6-49, a course that included his 350th test spot, and fast bowler Pat Cummins 4-32.
The victory gave Australia its first win at Edgbaston in any format since 2001, the last time it won a series of ashes in England and ended England’s 11 consecutive victories on the Birmingham surface.
England resumed the 13 threshings after the comeback test of Australian star Steve Smith, after a ban on his role in a ball-handling scandal, had allowed tourists to declare late on the fourth day of Sunday.
Rory Burns, whose first century 133 was his first century at this level, became the 10th cricketer to have batted in the five days of a Test.
But he had added only four runs to his seven overnight when he was undone by an excellent and growing Cummins that took Lyon’s gloves off in the ravine.
Referee number three, in four, was handed over to James Pattinson by referee Joel Wilson.
But in a match full of overturned decisions, Root successfully challenged the verdict.
Root had made eight when he almost played with Cummins before Jason Roy. Roy achieved an excellent 85 in England World Cup champion semi-final win over Edgbaston last month, led to extra cover for four.
Root had passed nine when Wilson gave him a leg before, this time off the bat of Peter Siddle. But the batter’s immediate overhaul revealed an internal advantage.
That meant referee Wilson had set an unwanted record with an eighth decision annulled in a test match.
Roy swept Lyon by four, but then, in a more appropriate shot for a one-day game than a team trying to save a Test, charged on the court and was cleaned bowled for 28.
Lyon remained a threat in a pitch that offered a twist and a rebound and had Joe Denly (11) beaten by Cameron Bancroft in the short leg to leave England 80-3.
And the Australian couple teamed up again to fire Root for 28.
England’s 85-4 luncheon soon turned into 85-5 when Jos Buttler (one) was defeated by a Cummins installment that remained low.
Cummins then had his 100th test pass when Jonny Bairstow (six) put a rising ball on Bancroft on the slips.
The collapse of England continued at a good pace when Ben Stokes was also out for six, well caught by wicket-keeper Tim Paine in a sharply broken delivery of Lyon.
Moeen Ali, who in the first innings had succumbed to Lyon when he was knocked down by a duck that did not play any shots, fell to the player for the ninth time in 11 ash beats when he was caught in the slips so that four left England 136-8.
He marked the end of a miserable match for England’s off-spinning Moeen, widely outplayed by Lyon.
Lyon got Stuart Broad caught on the next ball before James Anderson survived the hat-trick after not bowling in Australia’s second innings due to a calf injury.
Chris Woakes, who played several fine shots, was dropped on the slips by Smith.
But former Australian captain Smith had the final say, catching Woakes (37) in Cummins’ slips, with England in 53 rounds.